This report examines what has changed for Afghan women in the last decade, and what prospects there are for retaining any of the positive achievements during this rocky time of transition and reconciliation. ActionAid has also carried out a rare survey of 1,000 women in Afghanistan – one of the very few times that Afghan women have been asked their opinion on the last 10 years of war and a possible Taliban return to power. It reveals that 72% of Afghan women believe their lives are better now than they were 10 years ago, while 37% think Afghanistan will become a worse place if international troops leave. A massive 86% are worried about a return to Taliban-style government, with one in five citing their daughter’s education as the main concern. And with good reason – they remember all too well what life was like under the Taliban.