This study reviews ADB assistance portfolio of rural road associated projects from 1996 to 2007; differentiates inclusive growth and inclusive development through a literature review; and presents case studies from Nepal, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Inclusive development deals with improving the lives of all members of society, particularly the poor, marginalized, and vulnerable groups.
The evaluation addresses four specific questions:
- What are the key economic, environmental, institutional, and social contributions to inclusive development that resulted from rural roads?
- What are the key constraints to inclusive development through rural roads?
- How sustainable are the mechanisms for the operation and maintenance (O&M) of rural roads?
- What supporting measures and policies are needed to fully capture potential for inclusive development of rural road-associated projects?