Prevention. Response. Clinical management of rape. Coordination. Sexual violence is common in humanitarian settings. It may become more acute in the wake of a natural disaster and occurs at every stage of a conflict. The victims are usually women and adolescents, who have often been separated from their families and communities and whose care-taking roles increase their vulnerability to exploitation and abuse. Breakdowns in law and order and in protective societal norms mean that most perpetrators abuse with impunity. In many conflicts, women’s bodies become battlegrounds, with rape used as a method of warfare to humiliate, dominate or disrupt social ties. In the aftermath of natural disasters, women and young people may be left unaccompanied -- out in the open or in temporary shelters -- at the same time that security lapses lead to increased lawlessness and chaos. The impact of sexual violence, especially rape, can be devastating. Physical consequences include injuries, unwanted pregnancies, fistula and HIV. Widespread sexual violence is also endemic in many post-conflict situations, where it can perpetuate a cycle of anxiety and fear that impedes recovery. However, because reliable data about sexual violence in these situations is scarce, UNFPA is spearheading efforts to determine the scope of the problem in many different contexts.