The lack of adequate backbone or adequate access to backbone curtails potential benefits of telecom services to the end user. With technological developments, especially the growth of the internet and broadband, absence of adequate backbone implies that even greater opportunities for economic and social enhancement are foregone. This study looks at the reasons for lack of adequate backbone, concluding that they are not just economic. Policy that is not conducive to optimal utilization and/or buildout and ineffective implementation through regulation contributes to the problem. In addition to the availability of backbone across the country, it is also necessary to ensure that appropriate conditions of access to the backbone exist, if the potential benefits of market competition are to be realized.