Juvenile justice is complex area in which to work, with juvenile justice systems across the world taking a variety of forms. The guidance is divided into sections dealing with the juvenile justice framework, general underpinning principles of the CRC, general principles of the juvenile justice system, minimum guarantees and rights pre-trial, alternatives to criminal proceedings (diversion), pre-trial detention, the right to a fair trial, sentencing (and alternatives to custodial sentences) and standards of detention. This guide sets principles, standards and norms that States need to consider when amending or drafting legislation and illustrates those issues with some examples of good practice and research. This guidance paper adopts a rights-based approach. It uses international and regional human rights instruments as the basic framework within which a juvenile justice system should be developed.