Mongolia’s growth is set to accelerate in the next decade, as its vast mining resources start to be put into large-scale production. This report discusses how the context of road sector policy and road infrastructure investments will change, and the ways the sector can best prepare to fulfill its new role. Given the country’s road infrastructure needs, the road sector will be expected to implement massive highway investments in a short time and then to consistently maintain the new highways at a high standard. This study looks into the sector’s financial dimension, the techniques and processes followed for road maintenance and construction, and the role of human resources management and education. It tries to understand why sector performance improvement has been slow, even though many sector issues and apparent solutions have been considered in the past. Reflecting on lessons from international experience, it outlines a range of policy options for decision makers and proposes an agenda until 2016.