Government officials, development managers and civil society are increasingly aware of the value of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of development activities. M&E provides a better means of learning from past experience, improving service delivery, planning and allocating resources, and demonstrating results as part of accountability to key stakeholders. Yet there is often confusion about what M&E entails. This booklet therefore presents a sample of M&E tools, methods and approaches, including several data collection methods, analytical frameworks, and types of evaluation and review. For each of these, a summary is provided of the following: their purpose and use; advantages and disadvantages; costs, skills, and time required; and key references.