The authors analyze polarization in India roughly in the past two and half decades using consumption expenditure data. It is shows that polarization has increased sharply since the 1990s, reversing the earlier trend. On multidimensional polarization, the authors show that several pre-existing cleavages (caste, rural-urban, state, region) have accentuated. Overall, the results suggest that the high growth that India has been witnessing in recent years and the pro-market reforms initiated since 1990s have been associated with widening disparities. Comparing polarization and inequality, similarities are found, but also some differences. The results therefore underscore the importance of studying polarization as distinct from traditional inequality.