Private sector development is critically important for the long-term economic recovery of economies affected by conflict. Domestic and international businesses have important roles to play in this effort. However, the private sector is not in itself a panacea. Companies and entrepreneurs will not take the considerable risks of investing without appropriate economic incentives. Moreover, poorly planned commercial development may widen existing social and political divisions, thus contributing to conflict rather than peace. This reading list reviews the emerging international debate on the best means of encouraging private sector development in high-risk economies and ensuring that it has a positive rather than a negative impact.